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Published on 04 Sep 2014 | over 2 years ago

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Chahnazarian, A. (1988). Determinants of the sex ratio at birth: Review of recent literature. Social Biology 35 (3–4): 214–235. www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/19485565.1988.9988703

Coale, A.J. (1991). Excess female mortality and the balance of the sexes in the population: An estimate of the number of "missing females." Population and Development Review 17(3): 517-523.www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/1971953

Clutton-Brock, T. H., Albon, S. D., and Guinness, F. E. (1986). Great expectations: dominance, breeding success and offspring sex ratios in red deer. Animal Behavior 34: 460-471. www.kora.ch/malme/05_library/5_1_publications/C/Clutton-Brock_et_al_1986_Dominance_breeding_success_and_offspring_sex_ratios_in_red_deer.pdf

Kalben B. (2000). Why men die younger: causes of mortality differences by sex. North American Actuarial Journal 4(4): 83–111. www.soa.org/news-and-publications/publications/other-publications/monographs/m-li01-1-toc.aspx

Schnettler, S. (2013). Revisiting a Sample of U.S. Billionaires: How Sample Selection and Timing of Maternal Condition Influence Findings on the Trivers-Willard Effect. PLoS ONE 8(2): e57446. www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0057446

Song, S. (2012). Does famine influence sex ratio at birth? Evidence from the 1959–1961 Great Leap Forward Famine in China. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 279(1739):2883-2890. rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/early/2012/03/16/rspb.2012.0320.full

Thogerson C.M., Brady, C.M., Howard, R.D., Mason, G.J., Pajor, E.A., Vicino, G.A., and Garner, J.P. (2013) Winning the genetic lottery: biasing birth sex ratio results in more grandchildren. PLoS One 8(7):e67867. www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0067867

Trivers, R.L., and Willard, D.E. (1973). Natural selection of parental ability to vary the sex ratio of offspring. Science 179: 90-92. www.sciencemag.org/content/179/4068/90.abstract

Photo credits:

Elephant Seal 1
Photo by: Roy Mangersnes

Elephant Seal 2
Photo by: Mike Baird

White tailed deer
Photo by: Public Domain

Key Deer
Photo by: IanarÈ SÈvi

Male Lion
Photo by: Wikimedia user Robek

Baby Lion
Photo by: Flickr user fortherock

Brad Pitt
Photo by: Foreign and Commonwealth Office

Photo by: Barbara Hobbs

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