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Published on 23 Feb 2014 | over 2 years ago

How Fiber Optics Work
Bill uses a bucket of propylene glycol to show how a fiber optic cable works and how engineers send signal across oceans.

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0:02
William yo
0:08
I find this a fascinating objected to fiber optic cable for a Stereogum
0:13
if I shyness laser pointer down the cable it guides line up together in
0:18
these cables are used to connect our world today
0:23
are capable of transmitting information across countries in oceans
0:26
the first let me show you how it works all I have a bucket that modify with the
0:30
window in front
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them and on the other side
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I put the stopper in this whole right here group
0:41
a bottle of propylene glycol with just a little bit agreement most
0:47
a rinsed and Gracy
0:51
leased and
0:54
now keep your eye on this mom
0:58
little
1:08
that's wonderful the light follows the likud flow
1:11
all the way to the park amazing it does this because if total
1:15
internal reflection as light enters the stream is reflected as soon as it hits
1:20
the interface between here and liquid
1:21
you can see here the first reflection and in the second and the third
1:25
this occurs because there's a difference between the index refractive the guy
1:37
material reflected from a
1:38
or past into and through it the latter we call fraction
1:41
its easier to see from a top you reflection and refraction could happen
1:46
at the same time
1:47
but if the light rain hits the surface at an angle greater than the critical
1:50
angle
1:50
it will be completely reflected in not refracted for this property in like on
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your system as long as a beam hits the surface at an angle greater
1:58
44-point 35 degrees measured from the normal
2:01
he will propagate down the street total internal reflection
2:04
to create the same effect in an optical fiber
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engineers create a core of class usually pure silicon dioxide
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an outside layer called cladding which they also typically make from silicon
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dioxide
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but with bits of boron merger mania to decrease its index of refraction
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a one-percent difference is enough to make a fighter work
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to make such a long thin piece of glass in juniors heat a large class pre for
2:27
its center is the pure core class and the outside the cladding
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they didn't roll or Paula fiber by wind in the mail onto a wheel it speeds up to
2:35
1600 meters per second
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typically these drawing towers are several stories tall
3:21
it could handle some 14,000 simultaneous phone calls
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the essence and how they send information through a fiber optic cable
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is very simple
3:52
we want to make this a digital signal which means discrete values loudness and
3:56
not just any value
3:57
for example a use for bits which means I have 16 possible values for the loudness
4:23
we can think the signal as a series on ones and zeros organized by time
4:27
and it is that sequence that we see in through a fire up the cable
4:30
flash for one and nothing 30 of course the exact method encoding is no one at
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the receiving end
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so it is a trivial matter to decipher the message now
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fibers
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look back on our property in stream here's how the attenuated travels
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you can see here in narrow beam in the bucket the Broughton's a bit when it
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enters the stream
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and then after the first bounce the bean leaves even broader than and entered
5:01
that's because the interface for the air is uneven and the Rays that make up the
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beam strike it slightly different angles
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when that be makes its second reflection those individual raise diverge even more
5:11
Intel by the time it reaches the third bounce many the Rays are no longer the
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critical angle
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Lincoln exit from the side to the stream hear it happens in a few inches
5:20
the cable like having the signal travels a stunning 50 kilometers before it needs
5:24
to be amplified
5:25
absolutely amazing I don't have it the engineer guy
5:32
home

This video is Creative Commons creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/ and it is from goo.gl/tIuRCA

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