Published on 21 Sep 2012 | over 4 years ago
Professor Lawrence Krauss and Professor Michio Kaku explain the physics behind the events in the first second of The Big Bang, events which range from the first fractions of a second after creation: The Plank Era; The field symmetry breaking; formation of elementary particles; Matter-antimatter annihilation (explained by Dr. Tara Shears); Formation of atoms and the last scattering of photons which make up the Cosmic Microwave Background (Explained by Dr. David N. Spergel) to the billions of years of stellar evolution: the formation of stars and Galaxies which developed the visible universe as seen today.
Using High Energy Particle Accelerators and Observational and Theoretical Astrophysics, scientists are able to recreate the first few fractions of a second after the Big Bang, to the point of symmetry breaking, and in conjunction by using space and earth-based observatories observe the remnants of the Big Bang itself using powerful analysis of the CMB by the WMAP and Planck Spacecraft combined with the modelling of the large scale structure of the universe as done by The Sloan Digital Sky Survey..
The Initial Conditions of the Universe are still a mystery and debate has gone on recently to whether or not there were even any initial conditions at all, maybe the universe can form from no initial conditions in standard space-time and that the very fabric of space, curled up in perhaps infinite dimensions creates an infinite set of paths for scalar fields to branch off of and interfere to create the flow of energy from the initial big bang.
Such a theory is predicted by M-Theory, which gives the Multiverse picture of curved Space-Time in 11 Dimensions which, through quantum mechanics, create many scalar fields that couple at different strengths in each universe creating a different set of physical laws in each universe.
Not all universes could be suitable for life, each universe seems to have the Planck Constant encoded into it, as it is the Uncertainty Principle and the Sum over Histories that lead to the Multiverse picture in the first place, however the coupling strengths of gravity and electromagnetism are completely arbitrary in this view.
In some of these Universes, Electromagnetism could be very strongly coupled in certain schemes meaning that basic chemistry would not arise in some universes. In other Universes the Strong Nuclear force may be too weak to give sufficient binding energy to atomic nuclei, making fusion impossible. In other Universes, Gravity may be coupled far more strongly, creating a Universe of Galaxy Cluster-sized black holes. Other Universes still may be composed of nothing but vacuum energy.
Hence we must be living in a Universe suitable for life as we are here observing it, that is the nature of The Anthropic Principle which is used to answer the question, "why is the universe the way it is?" However, the true meaning of the answer comes from Theoretical Physics and M-Theory: The Universe need not be suitable for life, our one just happens to be.