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NITROGEN CYCLE:Nitrogen is the important essential element for all living organisms by the synthesis of Amino acids, proteins, Enzymesetc.What happens if there is no Nitrogen?. Root systems and plant growth are stunted.Older leaves turn yellow.Decrease in crop production. Soil microorganisms life become dangerous.In
Atmosphere its concentration is 78 percentage.The circulation or cyclic movement of Nitrogen from the atmosphere physical or abiotic component to soilBiotic componentand back into the atmosphere is known as.Nitrogen cycle involves various steps:1.Nitrogen fixation. 2.Nitrogen assimilation 3. Ammonification 4. Nitrification 5. Denitrification. Plants cannot utilize Atmospheric nitrogen so it should be converted into utilizable form such as Ammonia.1.Nitrogenfixation:This is the first step of Nitrogen fixation.Conversion of atmospheric nitrogen into Ammonia for living organismsis known as Nitrogen fixation.This process is carried out by leguminous plants such as ground nut; even some bacteriacan fix atmospheric nitrogen.Examples of bacteria --Azotobacter Clostridium, Rhizobium, Nostoc and Anabaena2.NitrogenAssimilation:The process of absorbing Nitrates and Ammonia into Organic nitrogen is known as Nitrogen Assimilation.This organic nitrogen is transferred into animal's body when plants are eaten by animals. 3. Ammonification:The process of converting organic nitrogen into Ammonia when Animals die is known as Ammonification.It
is also known asMineralization.This process was carried out by some Saprophytes like Fungi andBacteria.Ammonia is also produced from volcanic eruptions and excretory products of Animals.4.Nitrification:The Bacteria which is involved in nitrification is known as Nitrifying bacteria.Ammonia is first converted to nitrites.Examples: Nitrosomonas,Nitrococcus.Nitrites are converted to nitratesExamples:Nitrobacter.5.Denitrification:Nitrates are converted into molecular nitrogen through Nitric oxide is known as Denitrification, in order to maintain the equilibrium of nitrogen in the atmosphere.Bacteria which are involved in denitrificationare known as denitrifying bacteria.Examples: Thiobacillusdenitrificans,Pseuodomonasdenitrificans and Micrococcusdenitrificans.Problems with increase of Nitrogen:Acid rain formation. Acidification of soil and lakes. Increase in death of plants.