This is Pakistan in a nutshell. The ancient period witnessed the rise and fall of the cities of the Indus Valley. This was followed by waves of nomadic tribes from Central Asia. Then the Arabs brought Islam and several Islamic dynasties ruled over the region. British rule followed and when they left in 1947, the nation of Pakistan was created. Independent Pakistan has been characterized by alternating civil and military rule, conflict with India and a love-hate relationship with Fundamentalist elements.