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A modified and condensed shoot useful for reproduction in angiosperms is called flower.
Famous scientists like Linnaeus, Gaspard Bauhin, Goethe, de Candolle described flower as a modified stem.
PARTS OF A TYPICAL FLOWER:
THALAMUS or TORUS -- The apical part of the pedicel.
It contains nodes and condensed internodes.
From the nodes modified leaves called FLORAL LEAVES are developed.
These floral leaves are arranged in the form of whorls at the nodes.
In a typical flower four sets of floral leaves are present. They are
1.Calyx, 2.Corolla, 3.Androecium and 4.Gynoecium or Pistil.
PERIANTH -- Calyx and Corolla together called as PERIANTH.
The first whorl calyx and second whorl corolla (Perianth) are non essential organs of the flower. Androecium and Gynoecium are essential organs of the flower. They involve in reproduction.
STRUCTURE OF A FLOWER:
ANTERIOR SIDE -- The bract side of the flower.
POSTERIOR SIDE -- The mother axis side of the flower.
BRACT -- Flowers develop in the axils of specialized leaves called BRACTS.
BRACTEATE -- Flowers with bracts. EBRACTEATE -- Flowers without bracts.
PEDICEL -- Stalk of the flower. PEDICELLATE -- Flowers with pedicel.
SESSILE -- Flowers without pedicel.
BRACTEOLE -- The small leaf like structures present on the pedicel.
BRACTEOLATE -- Flowers with bracteoles.
EBRACTEOLATE -- Flowers without bracteoles.
COMPLETE FLOWER -- Flower with all four floral parts.
INCOMPLETE FLOWER -- Flower in which any one of the part is absent.
SEXUALITY OF THE FLOWER:
BISEXUAL FLOWER: Flower with both androecium and gynoecium.
UNISEXUAL FLOWER: Flower with either androecium or gynoecium.
MALE FLOWER or STAMINATE FLOWER: Unisexual flower with androecium.
EMALE FLOWER or PISTILLATE FLOWER: Unisexual flower with gynoecium
SEX DISTRIBUTION OF PLANTS:
Based on the sexuality of the flowers. The sex distribution is of three types.
MONOECIOUS PLANT: Plant with male and female flowers.
Examples: Cocos nucifera, Acalypha.
DIOECIOUS PLANT: Plant with either male or female flowers.
MALE PLANT: Dioecious plant with male flowers
FEMALE PLANT: Dioecious plant with female flowers eg: Borassus, Vallisnaria
POLYGAMOUS PLANT: Plant with unisexual male and female flowers and bisexual flowers. Examples: Mangifera, Polygonum.